TDMA – what’s that all about then ?

It’s not always obvious when you get into DMR exactly what makes DMR so ‘special’ and why everyone is jumping on the bandwagon, compared to most other types of digital voice modes, one of the coolest things about DMR over most other forms of digital voice modes is TDMA. that’s the secret sauce.

Conventional FM repeaters, along with older FDMA types work very well indeed, but more can be done, especially nowadays. On an FM transmitter, as soon as you transmit, your transmitters PA (RF power Amp) shoots right over to solidly pumping out 100% constant carrier, this is simple to understand, as indeed is a FM repeater’s basic operation, and we’re all used to and happy with that.
However, one conversation on a FM (or FDMA) repeater generally means that you have to wait until the repeater is free before you can use it of course, so if your message is important, you’re stuffed, unless you have another repeater to make the call on.
Imagine though, a repeater which can carry 2 separate conversations at the same time using the same two frequencies an FM repeater would use ? How ?

The answer, is TDMA, Time Division Multiple Access, it has been around years, longer than you might think, but it’s basically a channel access method – a way of data streams sharing the same channel, (because *everything* is data nowadays) and there are different types of channel access too, but as we are discussing DMR really, we’ll stick to that for now. Most of us, back in the 1990s will likely be familiar of the annoying and somewhat unpleasant ‘buzz’ or interference when your old cell phone was near an amplifier or stereo (remember those?) and the rat-a-tat buzz from the 2G Nokia cell phone you had.. that was a TDMA transmission.

Very basically, and because it’s a little abstract, i’ll attempt to give a ‘duffers’ way of imagining it, because that’s how I imagine it. ūüôā
I know very little, but there seems to be very few write-ups anywhere on the web about it, particularly for hobbyists or folks who aren’t computer whizz kids, there are many DMR websites and discussions on forums and Facebook, but many others, though thorough and correct, require the imagination the size of a planet and a leap of faith to match. I possess neither ūüôā

Here goes, if you were to chop your FM transmitter on and off very quickly indeed, you could also imagine that in between your brief TX bursts, and the snapping of your PTT, that someone else, if just as quick, could send their quick TX bursts out too, on the same frequency in-between yours, no-one would be harmed, but you couldn’t speak fast enough to get your voice over could you ? and neither could the station that you’re trying to talk to.
Now, digital radio takes all your TX audio, throws away what it thinks is unneeded, and compresses the rest.
Now your voice is digital and in squeezed into a tiny IC in your radio, we can do fancy things with it, we can, for instance, break it up into blocks and transmit these blocks in, er, blocks, or packets, –¬† the quick pulses we mentioned earlier, but faster and electronicaly timed and controlled.
The receiver collects these ‘blocks’ and re-constitutes them, back into a whole lump, like adding water to a 1970s Vesta Chow Mein and you’ve got your audio back at the receiver, albeit after a lot of processing, and of course, you can do this through a repeater or simplex. You can even have two concurrent QSOs on simplex, on the same frequency!

A basic one way QSO through a DMR repeater is pretty simple to envisage,
here’s the first of my (sad and tragic) attempts at basic animation in The Gimp, a open source, free software graphics program, (For Windows, Mac & Linux) which i only found out did animation a couple of hours ago, so be kind to my first attempts !

TDMA – the Secret sauce

As you can see above, transmitting one DMR transmission over a DMR repeater all seems to make some kind of sense, you can see the packets arriving at the repeater, and the repeater transmitting them on.

The interesting bit about DMR is whilst they’re nattering on there, we can start up another QSO on the same repeater and the other QSO will be totally unaware, so, if there’s just one QSO on the DMR repeater, it will be sat idle a good proportion of the time, yet still continue to relay a full QSO on one of the slots, but there’s another slot we can play with, lets look at that.

Slots o’ fun

Above, on grubby animation number two, is what the repeater is seeing when someone else calls through the repeater, hugely slowed down, as for a short time it listens in the (lets call it a ‘gap’) and if it hears any valid DMR on the input at that time, it calls that slot 1, then automatically and without waiting, listens again on the same frequency in the other ‘gap’ or slot, and if a valid chunk of tasty DMR comes in at the expected slot 2 time, well, we will call that slot 2 then, and so it goes, back and forth, many times a second, constantly, until both transmissions stop and it can rest.¬†

So, to recap, there are now two simultaneous QSOs going on in the repeater, and as we can see, as the repeater is easily hearing both transmissions, the DMR repeater is also sending back control information to your radio, stuff like telling both transmitters when to TX their blocks of data back, all DMR receivers expect to hear packets or these blocks of data, so everybody is happy. Win, Win.

It’s a busy, busy busy job …

Above, in crap animation number three, (I’ll stop soon, i promise) – is a very poor attempt to envisage a DMR repeater in the midst of, er, repeating. Two QSOs are taking place on the one repeater at the same time, neither QSO knows or needs to know about the other QSO,

QSO one (slot 1)¬† is blue, and QSO two (slot 2) is green, neither know or can hear, (or join in with) the other QSO, they’re both completely independent, try doing that without TDMA.

In the crude graphic, massivley slowed down, the repeater is flashing the colour of the QSO it is currently TXing, it really onl haas one transmitter and one receiver really, but as you can see, it switches between both ‘slots’ automatically and very fast indeed, with the effect that the end user can’t tell. congratulations, because instead of having to buy another repeater, you’ve just got a free one by using DMR.

There are more DMR benefits too, stuff that the FM and FDMA stuff can only dream about,Myself, i like the old P25 phase 1 digital, a mostly American emergency service digital system, but it’s old and FDMA, not TDMA and and has only half the capacity of a these two slot TDMA system, bit TDMA is so important in comms, that P25 ‘phase 2’ is now TDMA, because it makes NO SENSE to invest in a poor propriety digital amateur only mode, or really any FDMA nowadays, unless it’s foe low end or retro fun, it’s a technological dead end street now, technology has moved on, some companies thought they’d lock users into substandard and propriety modes and dropped the ball completely or refused to update, as their cash cow was still bringing in the $$$ whilst other, superior standard, industry wide modes, well supported and still in active development continue to offer future development, rather than just at the whim of some proprietary bean counting exec.. but i digress..

One feature we enjoyed when we started playing with DMR, was to de-key each other .. the locals here are an often cruel and cheeky bunch who used to delight in, lets say, if someone was transmitting for a really long time, and listeners were starting to doze off or get bored, we send a DMR command from our rigs to the Guy who is still in waffle mode – still in TX -and¬† instantly setting the (surprised) waffling station’s rig back into receive mode – whilst they still had their finger on their PTT !¬† ¬†for a while it was a challenge to not be boring or waffle too much, lest you would be remotely de-keyed in mid sentance !

Such is the fun we had, but alas the tumbleweeds have taken over the hobby and i have to get my kicks by writing articles on MBARS ūüôā

Next Article:
“Talkgroups what the bloody hell are they then”

Decoding DMR / P25 with the RTL SDR – an update

Setting up¬†¬†SDR# (or SDRsharp) for use with an RTL dongle is the cheapest way of listening to most digital voice modes on the VHF and UHF bands, and you don’t need to know talkgroups, colour codes, slots or anything, so it’s much easier than any other method, other than forking out to buy one of the nice but overpriced digital scanners, and it’s also great for general FM, AM and SSB monitoring too, with sensitivity on par with typical purpose made mobile and portable transceivers, though, for analogue listening, i do think the SSB AGC performance on the SDR side needs some improvement, but that may just be my personal preference, and ¬†on the decoding side, there is no DSTAR audio decode built into DSDPlus ‘out of the box’ (on Windows) ¬†but apart from those very minor issues, it’s a great way to go listening nowadays, and it’s not half as fiddly to set up as it was ¬†earlier, so, as interest in decoding digital voice is still on the increase, it seemed like a good time for a refresh.

You will need:
PC ¬†–
anything from the last several years should be fine,¬† most of us have PCs that are at least dual core by now, so anything runs Vista (remember that nightmare?)¬† will do. Windows 10 works fine, probably better now to use Windows 10 than Windows 7.¬† ¬†Win 10 runs SDRsharp (Airspy) pretty well, though recent versions are a little ‘crashy’

Of course, You need an RTL SDR dongle.. this blue MK II one (below) was ¬£6 off a well known auction site, and came with the usual TV remote and the pointless UHF magmount, but hey.. i need¬† fridge magnet, The SDRs’ coaxial connector may be an MCX, it was on my first RTL, but the BEST RTL dongles now come with a SMA connector, with a TCXO even and metal body, some even do HF.

You can use 2 or 3 extension USB cables to get the receiver up and away from the often ‘RF noisy’ computer gear and possibly save a little bit of cable loss too.

RTL SDR dongles also run well under Linux,¬†Linux driver installation here and Mac OS X Mac OSX driver installation here¬†and¬†an old 2012¬†GQRX SDR receiver complied for Mac¬†(Thanks Elias)¬†it’s GNU Radio based too.
Even Raspberry PI’s and other SBCs can run RTL SDRs too. RTL SDR dongles can even run on Android, with drivers available in the App store, and it can even decode digital voice.

Linux can, of course, run digital voice decoding quite well too, in fact the first DSD decoder program ran on Linux only, not Windows, so to decode on Windows you had to run¬†Cygwin¬†and¬†it seemed¬†a bit fiddly, until DSD¬†was be ported to work on Windows natively. There is a great¬†amount of SDR work going on, not least of all on Linux – check your repo and GIT for goodies, Linux can even decode unencrypted TETRA voice, with GNUradio, so¬†Windows and Mac users are out of luck again with that one, i may do an article on that in the future, if anyone’s interested, but it’s not for the beginner or faint-hearted, but is reasonably¬†straight forward if you’ve compiled ¬†software before on Linux.


Above – most 2020/2021 RTL SDR –
slightly better spec with TCXO (temperature Controlled Oscillator) they drift much less.
there are larger, better, more expensive versions with more filtering in.
Below – older style RTL- SDR


and you may want something like this MCX to BNC lead if you bought the one with a MCX connector, but those are fast disappearing, most are now SMA, so you’ll need an SMA t whatever you use in your shack for antenna connections


Before we start, a brief overview might seem appropriate, as using a PC to tune the bands is still an relatively unknown thing to many, , but it’s a quickly maturing technology, and may take a little getting used to, but tuning around on a SDR is quite different, and fascinating to visualise the 2Mhz of band you csn see moving, besides using your mouse wheel as the VFO, you can buy actual hardware VFO type knobs too – USB leads which control software. Electronic musicians have been quick to adopt real hardware controls for software instruments, and they work well too. some are horrendously overpriced, but some can be had much, much cheaper..

The idea is, that RF signals come in to your dongle, then turned into digital inside then sent up the USB to your PC running the SDR program, then (my badly drawn green cable thingy) the signal path once it comes into your PC to your SDR program Then outputs from your SDR into the VIRTUAL CABLE¬† to the DSD¬† (or DSDPlus) program which decodes it, then outputs it back to your speakers from the VIRTUAL CABLE OUTPUT.¬† it’s the ‘middleman’ and Yes.. i know my quick drawing below is rubbish !


You can install THE VIRTIUAL CABLE  now if you like, but it may want to reboot to take effect. Y

First things first, Windows drivers often come with dozens of CPU chomping addons and run your computer’s audio through some weird surround sound DSP nonsense automatically, which is no good at all if we want to use the soundcard for something genuinely useful, so it’s worthwhile checking your Windows system tray, and ¬†/ or Windows control panel to make sure all DSP and sound effects are turned OFF, these effects can hamper or ruin attempts at decoding digital voice.

Software List:


VB Cable

Airspy SDRsharp receiver¬†¬†and ¬†here’s the Airspy wiki ¬† (it’s actually quite good)

DSD Plus (digital voice decoder)¬†¬†and it’s associated homepage ¬†HERE

When you plug in you RTL SDR – Windows will attempt to install some drivers – you don’t need to bother – but if it does try to download drivers, let it finish,
because you’ll be replacing them in a few minutes anyway.
You’ll may need to install the Microsoft .net framework too, depending on what version of Windows you are using, but If You’r using Windows 10 you probably have it installed already.

Set up the DSD.exe decoder.
You should unzip SDRsharp into a folder then, the file is still called sdrsharp.exe, and you might need to move the whole folder somewhere else, other than the downloads directory where it probably extracted to, i copied all th DSD.exe and all it’s files into the SDRsharp folder anyway. You could make a shortcut if you like, to sdrsharp.exe, and to DSD..¬† ¬†i created a shortcut to DSD.exe for convenience. I dragged these two shortcut icons into the start menu for ease of use.

Now it’s time to test it.
start SDRsharp and you should see something like this below:


First thing, check at the top left where it says “Source” and open the drop down menu and select RTL SDR (USB) …. if you dont see RTL SDR listed and the dongle is plugged in, either navigate to the SDRsharp folder and run Zadig¬†¬†and follow the instructions below, if Zadig,exe is not in your SDRsharp folder already, d/load it here¬†and run it as Administrator, Windows will¬†prompt you for permission.
In the running SDR screenshot above, DSDPlus displays Radio ID, group ID (talkgroup) colour code, and slot.

Running ZADIG (if you need to)
select Options – then List All devices and then¬†from the drop-down, select “Bulk In Interface 0”¬†In the drop down box, choose Bulk-In, Interface (Interface 0) thoughit¬†might also show up as¬†something like¬†¬†‘RTL 28320’ or something similar,¬†and that’s¬†ok.
Just make sure that ‘WinUSB’ is selected as the target driver, and then click on¬†‘Replace Driver’.. you may have to reboot, but next time you start SDRsharp, your RTL SDR should now be in the list of available devices,¬†select it.

Setting it up.

Under the left hand RADIO tab (see the above screenshot) set the¬†mode to NFM, i generally¬†set¬†the filter bandwidth about 12500 for DMR decoding, that’s fine for most normal comms FM listening too, and on NFM i set the steps to 12.5 kc.

These USB devices are cheap and mass produced, the things¬†are not calibrated too accurately, and so we need to¬†fine tune the SDR so they both agree on freq. ¬†(if you’re adventurous and run Linux, try Kalibrate¬†which uses GSM, but it’s really overkill) and¬†you *can* fit a much more accurate crystal.. but i’ll leave that up to you to decide.

Start SDRsharp and click the cog on the SDRsharp toolbar, you will see your device listed, now click both the AGC tickboxes to maximise RF gain, note the frequency correction adjustment there too, we need to find a known signal on air and tune the SDR to the correct freq readout, then, whilst listening, tweak the frequency correction to get it spot on. CW or SSB mode is good as you can more or less find zero beat, as you see, this is an old RTL SDR stick, so this one is set at +68. Newer ones with TCXO are usually set to around ) (zero) or thereabouts.


Now you’re up and running with SDRsharp, you may want to try to decode digital, check the screenshot, and notice the ‘filter audio’ needs to be unticked for decoding: same for Pocsag etc. squelch off/ open.


Make sure to send the SDR’s audio to the DSDPlus decoder program – by selecting Output to ‘VB Cable input‘ and you should see the ‘scope display on the DSDPlus program jumping about wildly now. ¬†If you dont see DSDPlus’ scope displaying activity (even on random FM noise) it could be that the SDR isn’t running (click PLAY’ or the squelch is up. If ithe display is moving, and still silent, audio routing may need one slight tweak, here on my old Windows7 craptop here, i had to go into the control panel, then sounds then check in and output devices as you see below, then it worked. note the audio bargraph level meters reading, your soundcard will probably be named something different.


Get tuning !   if the signals you see are good, but garbled or no audio, they may be using privacy or encryption, or have interference, or it may be data or GPS (LRRP) and all kinds of stuff going back and forwards, still getting problems, check your audio levels, RX bandwidth, make sure your fine tune is correct,  that filter audio is OFF and you are indeed on NFM with no squelch. Remember there is no windows binary widely availble for dstar audio yet (that i have seen) and encryption is used alot.

In case anyone is wondering, clear / unencrypted TETRA isn’t able to be decoded on anything other than Linux at the moment, and it will probably¬†never appear on Windows anyway, On Linux¬†it’s only done with GNURadio as a base, GNUradio companion¬†has the most¬†horrible interface i have ever seen (but it works very well indeed) and there’s not much unencrypted TETRA about anyway, but after all the hours of compiling and patching stuff, it’s a lot of¬†¬†fun learning about¬†it.

SDR and decoding digital voice can be fascinating, cheap, and lots of fun, ¬†thanks to some really smart people out there, and some really cheap hardware. It offers up a new way¬†of visualising the band and is a crossover of radio experimentation and computer tech, and it’s a developing¬†part¬†of the hacker and radio amateur communities too.. ¬†and who knows what direction that may lead to ? ¬† and long may it continue.. Have Fun..

If money’s no object, or if you really must have a VFO knob for your SDR, and let’s face it, most mouse-wheels are pretty crummy for making small or accurate incremental adjustments for any length of time, so you might want to treat yourself to something like the Griffin PowerMate controller¬†.. it’s bluetooth, but it’s still hugely overpriced as it’s little more than a rotary encoder, i wouldn’t mind, but such devices have been around for several years already, and the Chinese manufacturers still haven’t got around to making them for a fiver yet, most you see on Ebay are from Japan or the USA, or if you like the idea, you could always make one…¬† happy SDRing..


All work, text and images © GB7MB

A beginners guide to using the MotoTrbo CPS

Its a fine and long standing tradition amongst Radio Amateurs to convert old military or commercial (PMR or Land Mobile) equipment to get onto the Amateur radio bands, but technology moves on and its time Amateur Radio did too. You’ve bought a DMR transceiver, so lets get the set programmed up.

While not always immediately obvious how to set up a channel¬† if you’re new to any radio programming software and you’ll be wanting to get started, here we’ll show you a quick and easy way to get started, with screen-grabs and some basic facts.

First things first – select Expert mode, like pictured below, and now save your codeplug – dont write it back to your radio, save it to your PC.¬† do not forget this step, because If you make an error one day, you may need to revert back to an earlier codeplug, in fact, we suggest that you save most codeplugs’ you make, provided you name and date them – as they take virtually no space up on your PC.
Click on the thumbnails to get full pic / screenshots

expert mode

And before we begin, a few factoids.

1:) You can not swap or use the codeplugs, software or leads on or between Motorola and non Motorola sets.
2:) Do not ask us for Mototrbo software.
3:) Motorola DPxxx program leads are expensive because they have a ‘chip’ in them.
4:) You cant do Dstar or Yaesu digital on them.
5:) Only the Motorola MotoTrbo SL4000 portable has no FM (as far as i’m aware)
6:) Note difference’s between TDMA and FDMA – TDMA is a pulsed system unlike less efficient FDMA Yaesu/D*star
7:) A codeplug is the program data from the radio, most commonly seen, saved as files on your PC
8:) High power DM4600 codeplugs can not be written into standard 25w DM4600 codeplugs
9:) There are likely mistakes in codeplugs, its up to you to check them before use, we will not be held responsible.
10:) There are a few different approaches to programming them, i prefer simplicity.

That said, lets get ‘programming’

Lets create a simplex DMR channel. As you can see the radio ID is already filled in – yours will start with 235 – instead of just 007 here, in the box – just above the Motorola graphic sign. (you can change that too if you get the right size)


For a simplex DMR frequency you need three bits of info, frequency, colour code and numeric talkgroup ID, and for a repeater you obviously need the TX/RX frequencies   **and the slot number used for each talkgroup**

Around Morecambe Bay we use 430.3125 DMR simplex, talkgroup 9, and colour code 1, so lets use that.
First, set up the ‘Digital Contact’ like in the screen-grab below –
first we are going to define which talkgroup (group call) to TX on.

So, in the left-hand side pane, pictured below, navigate to Contacts / Digital – and right click on ‘Digital’ and add a ‘Group call‘ – it will probably be named ‘Call 1’ which will be wrong for most channels, so always rename these to something meaningful – i named this ‘Talkgroup 9’

Then across at the top of the right-hand pane, change the number in ‘Call ID’ to whatever talkgroup ID number you need. in this case, ‘ 9 ‘ it should then look like ours pictured below when you’re done..




Next we need to define which talkgroup(s) to receive on – so, it’s talkgroup 9 again, Yes, you’ve already defined it, but as you can receive up to 16¬† – you’ll need to specify just which ones in a list, of course we’ll only need to add our single talkgroup – so navigate to RX Group Lists / Digital / and right-click on ‘Digital’ and add¬† ‘RX Group List’
Strictly speaking, you don’t really need to specify *any* RX grouplist in the RX field, in which case the default TX talkgroup will be used for RX if set to ‘none’



see the ‘Talkgroup 9’ you’ve just made in ‘available’ ?¬† – so now click¬† ADD so it appears in ‘Members’¬† then rename it to ‘Talkgroup 9’¬† then in the left-hand pane rename ‘List 1’ to ‘Talkgroup 9’ like below ..


Now its time to add some frequencies !
In a new or existing zone,¬† right-click the zone you want the new channel in and select ‘add Digital channel’ and rename it to whatever you want the channel display on the radio to say. here ours below are automatically named¬† ‘Channel 1’ ‘Channel 2’ – the square icon represents a digital channel, the other means analogue FM.

and of course, rename the channel to ¬† 430.3125 DMR – or whatever you want to appear on the radio display. Select the channel you’ve defined and fill the channel info like pictured in on the right-hand pane in the screen-grab below


So after the frequencies are in, and you’ve set the colour code above, and the slot (if it its repeater) select your newly made ‘talkgroup 9’ in both the RX section’s ‘Grouplist’ drop-down, (arrowed) and again over in the TX section, in the¬† ‘contact name’ dropdown. Make sure your transmit timeout is something a bit longer than the default 60 seconds and make sure all the ‘Emergency’ stuff is unticked too, as i need to do in this example here below. again arrowed


You have now made a digital channel for your MotoTrbo set. You can either write it into your MotoTrbo set or carry on programming your set up. The DM4600 codeplug on this site can be downloaded and some of its bits dragged and dropped into your codeplug, but beware, if you drag ‘n’ drop digital channels from another open codeplug in to your codeplug, you will need to set up talkgroups and RX group lists separately, and name them exactly the same too, which is very tedious. You might want to do this too..

And finally – a lot of people new to DMR can’t tell when the person they are listening to has stopped transmitting.¬† so, back up in ‘General Settings’ click ‘channel free indication tone‘ and it you really hate the ‘chirp’ everytime you press the PTT,¬† choose¬† ‘Talk permit tone‘ to ‘None‘ in the drop-down.

All work, text and images © GB7MB

Digital diversity !


Motorola Astro Spectra
Motorola Astro Spectra

Here ’round the Bay area, we don’t just stick with DMR/ MotoTrbo, In fact we’re interested in all commercial digital voice modes. If you’re into getting your ‘hands dirty’ and hacking on old Motorola digital gear for fun, here’s a glimpse of what we play with on dark sunday evenings. It used to be that most PMR conversions were hours of painstaking research, winding coils, doing mathematics, and¬† actually burning your fingertips with a soldering iron, but now its in mainly¬† about swapping that soldering iron for a keyboard, so onward with the learning process, and remembering the ‘experimentation in wireless telegraphy’ bit, (remember that ?) and do it just for the hell of it.

Its an Astro Spectra above, one of many different sorts we’ve collected over the last couple of years, nice old sets, 1990s vintage, heavy as a paving stone, no light alloys and thin parts, it really is a solid lump of metal with a radio inside, don’t drop it on your toe. there are portables, more recent versions, but these are just right for hacking on.

The more geekier of you out there may be thinking ‘ oh, p25 ‘ well, its not.

its pure ASTRO – Its what Motorola made before p25 was the standard, its got alot in common, and most Astro Spectra’s ARE p25 – but these are an earlier iteration, and the codec is actually VSELP as opposed to IMBE/p25 sets which most are. We use Astro digital, Astro 25 digital (Motorola’s name for P25) and DMR. for now.

Plenty of these sets are all over Ebay, i got a headless one for a penny,  but they go for about 30 ukp and up.

when buying a Astro Spectra there are several things to think about.

1:) there is a Analogue version just called ‘Motorola Spectra’¬† avoid unless you want a FM only set.

2:) there are VHF, UHF and 800/900mhz versions and can all have different & software-upgradable features.
3:) the sets are ‘banded’ so a 450-482mhz set needs more work to convert than a 403-440mhz set.
4:) there are 15w-25w  25-40w  and 110w versions, dual head and portable versions (Astro Saber)
5:) there are different front panel versions and they have plenty of channels too.

6:) they are FM and digital, they scan,  have high/low power, are a solid TX, a good sensitive RX.
7:) plenty of well documented information and the community has done much research already
8:) it stops you getting bored with Amateur radio.

9:) professional quality radio and codec, making other ham stuff look like cheap plastic Argos PMR 446 toys.
10:) will make you more attractive to the opposite sex
11:) become an 1337 experimenter again !

 All work, text and images © GB7MB

Get your DMR-MARC ID

If you want to use Amateur DMR-MARC repeaters, you need a ID number, its free, easy and just identifies you to the network,

so go here, agree you wont use AGC (or we’ll send the boys ’round) or ARS, and its upto you what to type when it asks what is your nearest DMR repeater, you can ‘try’ to put GB7MB, but as the repeater isn’t on-air yet its probably better to put¬† ‘GB7HM’- in N. Wales, (same site as GB3CR up on Hope Mountain) if you get a query, as the DMR-MARC network wont know us yet.

All work, text and images © GB7MB